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26/11/2015

Automated Tests in Bluemix Build and Deploy

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Bluemix is a beautiful environment for agile software development. Its build and deploy capability ensure continious delivery, so you can focus on code. A well run project requires automatic testing (starting with unit tests up to integration testing).
You can configure this in the Build and Deploy pipeline, so your project looks like this:
A fully working pipeline
While you could argue: "I run my tests local", you might encounter the situation where you use the online editor and you then depend on the tests running in Bluemix. Setting up build and deploy is well documented and straight forward.

Tip: For Java projects you should use Maven or Gradle build, so your library dependencies are properly resolved. For Node.js projects a "simple" build would suffice, however using npm install would make the stage fail if your package.json has an issue, so you don't run later stages and fail there

However the documentation for the test stage simply states: "If you want to require that certain conditions are met, include test jobs before or after your build and deploy jobs. Test jobs are highly customizable. For example, you might run tests on your project code and a deployed instance of your app. ". That's a little "thin".
Inspecting the test job screen itself, we can learn that we have different testing options
Choices for testing
I specifically like the Sauce labs integration and the ability to run a code, security and vulnerability scan (So a real pipeline might have up to 4 distinct test stages). However the screen for "simple" tests, where unit tests go, isn't particularily helpful:
The helpful test screen
So lets shed some light on the inner workings.

13/11/2015

It's just HTML, CSS and JavaScript isn't it?

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Web development is easy isn't it? After all it is just the open standards of HTML, CSS and JavaScript.
That's roughly the same fallacy as to say: It's easy to write a great novel, since it is just words and grammar.
The simple reason: It is hard.
I'll outline my very opinonate version of what skills you need for mastery of front-end programming. The list doesn't include the skills to figure out what to program, just how. So here it goes:

Introduction

Jeffry Veen, who'm I had the pleasure to meet in Hong Kong once, summarized it nicely in his book: The Art and Science of Web Design already in 2000: "HTML provides structure, CSS layout and JavaScript behavior". Like English, development needs a style guide (and the mastery of it), web development has several guides, besides the plain definitions mentioned in the beginning.

HTML

  • The standard today is HTML5. So ignore any screams "But it must run in IE6" and see what HTML5 can do. There's a handy list of compatible elements you can check for reference
  • The predominant guideline for structure is Twitter bootstrap. It defines a layout and structure language, so your page structures become understandable by many developers. Twitter bootstrap contains CSS and JavaScript too, since they are intertwined
  • If you don't like Bootstrap, there are other options, but you have been warned
  • The other HTML structure to look at is the Ionic framework. Again it has more than HTML only

CSS

Most frameworks include CSS, so when you picked one above, you are pretty much covered. However understanding it well takes a while, so you can modify the template you started with. My still favourite place to get a feel for the power of CSS is CSS Zengarden. The W3C provides a collection of links to tutorials to deepen your knowledge. My strong advice to the developers: don't touch it initially. Use a template. Once your application is functional, then revisit the CSS (or let a designer do that).

JavaScript

Probably the most controversial part. IBM uses Dojo big time, ReactJS is gaining traction and there is Aurelia up and coming. So there's lot to watch out for. But that is not where you get started.
  • Start learning JavaScript including ES6. Some like CoffeeScript too, but not necessarily for starters
  • The most popular core library is jQuery, so get to know it. The $ operator is quite convenient and powerful
  • To build MVC style single page applications I recommend to use AngularJS. It has a huge body of knowledge, a nice form module and an active community. Version 2.0 will have a huge boost in performance too. Make sure you know John Papa's style guide and follow it
  • And again: have a look at Ionic and Cordova (used in Ionic) for mobile development. It uses AngularJS under the hood
There are tons of additional libraries around for all sorts of requirements, which probably warrants another article.

Templates

With all the complexity around, you don't have to start from scratch. There are plenty of templates around, that, free or a little fee, give you a head start. Be very clear: they are an incredible resource when you know how all is working together, but they don't relieve you from learning the skill. Here are my favourites

Tools and resources

Notepad is not a development tool. There are quite some you need if you want to be productive
  • You need a capable editor, luckily you have plenty of choices or you opt for one or the other IDE
  • Node.js: a JavaScript runtime based on Google's V8 engine. It provides all runtime for all the other tools. If you don't have a node.js installation on your developer workstation, where were you hiding the last 2 years?
  • Bower: a dependency manager for browser files like CSS, JS with their various frameworks. You add a depencency (e.g. Bootstrap) to the bower.json file and Bower will find the right version for you
  • Grunt: a task runner application, used for assembly of web sites/applications (or any other stuff). Configured using a Gruntfile.js: it can do all sorts of steps like: copy files, combine and minify, check code quality, run tests etc.
  • Yeoman: A application scaffolding tool. It puts all the tools and needed configurations together. It uses generators to blueprint different applications from classic web, to reveal application to mobile hybrid apps. The site lists hundreds of generators and you are invited to modify them or roll your own. I like generator-angularand mcfly
  • GIT: the version control system. Use it from the command line, your IDE or a version control client
  • Watch NPM for new development


Those are the tools to mastery, when you just want HTML, CSS and JavaScript

04/11/2015

Multitenancy - a blast from the past?

Category
Wikipedia defines multitenancy as: "Software Multitenancy refers to a software architecture in which a single instance of a software runs on a server and serves multiple tenants ... Multitenancy contrasts with multi-instance architectures, where separate software instances operate on behalf of different tenants "
Looking at contemporary architectures like Docker, OpenStack, Bluemix, AWS or Azure, I can't see any actual payloads being multi-tenant. Applications by large run single tenant. The prevalent (and IMHO only current valid use case) is the administrative components that manages the rollout of the individual services. So instead of building that one huge system, you "only" need to have a management layer (and enough runtime).
Multi-Tenant architecture
The typical argument for a multitenancy deployment is rooted in the experience that platforms are expensive and hard to build. So when one platform is ready, it is better everybody uses it. With Virtual Machines, Containers and PaaS this argument becomes weaker and weaker. The added complexity in code outweighs the cost for spinning up another instance (which can be done in minutes).
A multi-instance architecture mitigates these efforts:
Multi-Instance architecture
The burden to manage the tenants lies with the Identity and Entitlement management. Quite often (see Bluemix) those are only accessed by admin and development personnel, so their load is lighter. So next time someone asks for multitenancy, send them thinking.

04/11/2015

The lowdown on Notes application web and mobile enablement

Category
There are millions (if not billions) of lines of code written for the Notes client in small, large, simple, complex, epidermal and business critical applications. With the rise of browsers, tablets and mobile devices there is a need to web and mobile enable these applications, not at least since IBM won't let the C code of the Notes client run on iOS (which it could).
Whether we like it or not, that body of code can be considered technical debt.
  The strategy I see is mostly the same: classify applications by size, business criticality and perceived complexity. Then retire as much as possible and start a pilot for one (either insignificant or overly complex - mostly both) application using XPages. From there it goes nowhere.
Guess what. There's a better way.
Keep the part where you decide if an application can be retired. If you need to retain read access you could check out LDC Via, who remove the need to maintain a Domino infrastructure for those applications.
Then go and collect evidence (I know evidence based management isn't in fashion right now). There are elements in Notes that translate easily into web or mobile, parts that are hard and some stuff browsers can't do.
Collect how much you use of those, it makes decisions easier.

Design element and difficulty

  • View navigation:
    generally easy, its just data and Domino makes an excellent server for JSON data (I would render my own style, not the ?ReadViewEntries&Outputformat=JSON, but that's another story)
  • Categorised views:
    medium. The twisties we got so used to in Notes are not a native construct on the web (show me one that was web native). But with a little effort you can devise interaction patterns, go peek here.
  • View actions:
    HARD. They can be anything. Worst when code for front-end and back-end classes get mixed
  • Forms (read mode):
    Easy to medium. You could simply open a form using a browser and see something - or craft some XPage to show
  • Forms (edit mode):
    medium to hard (see below): You need to get your validation right and all the nice Hide-when conditions
  • RichText:
    HARD to impossible. RichText != HTML (and that's not even !==). For rendering you want to have Ben's enhancements as a start. RichText can contain attachments, wild formatting, OLE objects, Sections, Hidden stuff, tabbed or timed tables etc. All that doesn't really translate to HTML. To really know how RichText was used in your application and organisation you need to scan the actual data and analyse how RichText was used in each application
  • Code in forms:
    HARD. There is no LotusScript running in your browser, so you need to rewrite that logic. So better to know how many functions and lines of code you are looking at. Do your CoCoMo analysis. Code in fields (on enter/exit) needs to be re-though (nice word for retired)
  • Attachments:
    TEDIOUS. HTML doesn't know attachments, so you have to bridge between user expectations: can put an attachment anywhere in the text and the storage reality of HTML: simulate this by placing an image and a link. You might consider adding webDAV for a round trip editing experience
  • Reader & Author fields:
    Easy. Works
  • Encryption and Signature:
    (popular in approval applications) wait for Domino 9.0.2 - it supposedly will work there
  • Business Logic in hide-when formula:
    hard to find in Domino designer, DXL to the rescue
This list is probably not complete, but you get the gist

The approach

I would advocate (after the retirement of old applications):
  • Look at the whole application portfolio, not just one pilot. The best analogy: remember how long it took to drive your first 100m in a car (and I'm not talking about the 18 years wait to come of age). You had to take driving lessons (at least in civilized countries you have to), learn for the test, get a car (bargin with a parent?). So it took you around 20-40h, lets say: 20h. So you conclude to get to the supermarket, 3 km away it will take you 600h - so driving is out, you rather walk. Same applied to the "pilot". The first application is the hardest, so your experience wih it will screw the estimations.
    Furhermore looking at all applications gives you new synery potential and efficiency of scale
  • Create one module that handles view navigation for all applications (that probably would be a OSGi plug-in)
    When initially opening a document, it would point to a notes:// URL (you could have a little icon indicating that). Within a few weeks you have a working application giving some access to your Notes data (I would use JSON, AngularJS and Ionic for that app)
  • Next generate the forms using angular-formly or some {{mustache}} templates, so you have read-only access (DXL and XSLT skills come in handy)
  • Add a "request" functionality that lists the functions (Action buttons) an application once had, let users propose "I want this", so you get some priorities sorted out
  • Transit to contemporary development with a Domino backend
  • Do not fall into the trap: must look and work like a Notes client (we had that with the Java applets in R5 - last century). If someone is happy with the look of the Notes client - give them the IBM Client access plugin (PC only)

Why no magic button?

You could ask: why doesn't IBM provide this as an automatic module? After all they wrote LotusScript, the formula language and the Notes client. The short answer: IBM tried, we even had a prototype of LotusScript running on the JVM. The Notes client is such an incredible forgiving environment, any quality and mix of code "simply runs"™. I've seen code happily running (yes I'm talking about you 8000-lines-function) that was a melange of unspeakables.
Browsers on the other hand are fragile and unforgiving (not talking about quirks mode here). Any attempt to automate that never reached the stage of "point-and-shoot" - so it will not become an offering.

Why not just default and rewrite?

Good idea. Until you look closer. Domino's declarative security (ACL, Reader and Author fields anyone) is hard to replicate. The schema free Domino NoSQL store does neither map to Sharepoint nor an RDBMS (CouchDB could work), so you suddenly deal with data migration - a nightmare that can eat 80% of your total project cost. Lastly, the incremental approach outlined here allows to continue to use the applications (and eventually enhance them along the way), so disruption is minimised. Also the working Notes client provides a fallback for missing or malfunctioning features, this substantially lowers application risks.

Business partners to the rescue

You are not alone on this journey. IBM business partners and IBM Software Services for Collaboration are here to help. If you like the approach "I see Notes as one huge pool", you might want to talk to Redpill, they perfected this approach.

As usual YMMV.

Disclaimer

This site is in no way affiliated, endorsed, sanctioned, supported, nor enlightened by Lotus Software nor IBM Corporation. I may be an employee, but the opinions, theories, facts, etc. presented here are my own and are in now way given in any official capacity. In short, these are my words and this is my site, not IBM's - and don't even begin to think otherwise. (Disclaimer shamelessly plugged from Rocky Oliver)
© 2003 - 2017 Stephan H. Wissel - some rights reserved as listed here: Creative Commons License
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